|Most Musa species are susceptible to Panama disease caused by the soil borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum. There are four races or strains of the fungus, with the current race TR4 discovered in 1993. TR4 has already wiped out huge plantations in several southeast Asian countries and it is only a mater of time before it reaches plantations in Latin and South America. The fungi can persist in the soil for decades and is fungicide resistant hence it is impossible to eradicate or control once a plantation is infected. It is easily spread through contaminated soil on tools, clothing and footwear hence every effort should be made to maintain a bio-secure environment.