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Tropicals, Woody > Artocarpus > Artocarpus heterophyllus > Artocarpus heterophyllus

Artocarpus heterophyllus


Origin:  The rainforests of Malaysia and the Western Ghats of India
            Mike's Opinion

this is Mike


Jackfruit is a multipurpose evergreen tree, widely cultivated for its economic value, is used primarily for agricultural and the agrifoods industry. It is a fast growing cash crop and a potential source of income for people of the tropics and subtropics. A seedling tree simply takes 2-4 years to produce beautiful, succulent fruit.

Michael Pascoe, NDP., ODH., CLT., MSc. (Plant Conservation)


Tropicals, Woody
Tree (evergreen)
USDA Hardiness Zone
Cold season protection under glass.
Canadian Hardiness Zone
Cold season protection under glass.
RHS Hardiness Zone
Temperature (°C)
16- 35
Temperature (°F)
61- 95
10 - 25 m
3.5 - 7 m
Description and Growing Information
Flowering Period
General Description
A medium-sized, evergreen tree that has a fairly dense canopy with shining leaves in all seasons. Flowers and fruit emerge directly from old stems and some roots.
Urban and rural plantings in tropical areas.
Consistent temperature and pH conditions in well-drained, frost-free locations. Optimal soil structure is loose, fecund, with good drainage such as a light sandy loam with a pH of 6-7.
Erect, irregular, multi-stemmed tree with a round shape and dense branches.
ID Characteristic
All parts of the jackfruit tree contain a sticky, white latex sap. Greenish-yellow, giant fruit hang from branches and trunks during the mid summer. Some plate-like roots can extend for several metres outward from the trunk at ground level.
Young trees are susceptible to mealybugs and aphids. During the young fruit stage, fruits need to be carefully protected from fruit flies by woven bags. The tree is frost sensitive.
Humid tropical forests in the equatorial zone with a altitude of 1-1600 m and with an average rainfall of 100-240 cm.
Bark/Stem Description
The thick bark has a reddish-brown colour. Branchlets are glabrous and smooth, about 3-6 mm. When cut, produces a very sticky, milky sap.
Flower/Leaf Bud Description
The apex of the bud is pointed, slender, imbricate, 3 - 4 cm long, fairly shiny and emerald.
Leaf Description
The leaves are oblong or elliptic in form, entire, simple, glossy, leathery and deep green in colour. Juvenile leaves are often deeply lobed. 7-15 cm long, 3-7 cm wide.
Flower Description
It is a monoecious plant with male and female flowers on the same tree. The male flowers are held by a thin pedicel. Short, stout flowering twigs grow all over the trunk and branches. Female flowers are larger than the male flowers with thick pedicel. Male flowers produce sticky yellow pollen for attracting small insects via a sweet scent. The male inflorescence is 5 - 7 cm long and has a diameter of 2.5 cm.
Fruit Description
The tree has a composite or multiple fruit, called syncarp. The fruit is 30-80 cm long and 25-50 cm wide. It has an elliptic shape and is green to yellow in colour. Each contain up to 400 kidney-shaped seeds called achenes which are light brown to brown in colour and are about 13 cm long, 6 cm wide, with fibrous carpels. The female perianth is edible, and its taste resembles that of a pineapple.
Colour Description
The beautiful leaves have a radiantly deep green colour year-round. Huge fruits ripen by turning yellow to brown from March to June. Bark changes with age from orange to brown.
Notable Specimens
Many jackfruit trees are planted as street trees in Shenzhen University and Hainan University, China.
Seeds, cuttings and grafting. Wash first in water for processing, germination takes 3-8 weeks, then transplant after 4 weeks. Cutting-grown plants, air-layering and grafted seedlings are possible, but unnecessary as it is easily germinated by seed.
Ethnobotanical Uses (Disclaimer)
Since ancient times, people believe its fruit helps to produce saliva and slake thirst, and promotes good digestion. Seeds are rich in starch and can be consumed after boiling and roasting. Ancient monks in Asia had used them as a natural yellow dye for their cassocks. In modern times, people use them in the fruit processing industry and wine industry; it is a good source of carbohydrate, protein, vitamin and minerals. Due to its durability and resistance of insects the wood has long been used in the production of furniture.
Tan Lehe (2012), Jackfruit- The High Efficiency Production Technology. (1st ed.). Beijing: China Agriculture Press., 5 - 15; Elhadi M. Yahia (2011), Postharvest Biology and Technology of Tropical and Subtropical Fruits, Volume 3: Cocona to mango. (1st ed.). Philadelphia, USA: Woodhead Publishing Limited, 275 - 290.