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Woody > Pinus > Pinus engelmannii > Pinus engelmannii

Pinus engelmannii

Apache Pine

Origin:  The apache pine is found mainly in Mexico but there is also a limited distribution in the United States of America in southeastern Arizona.
Tree (evergreen)
USDA Hardiness Zone
2a - 8b
Canadian Hardiness Zone
0a - 8a
RHS Hardiness Zone
H4 - H7
Temperature (°C)
Temperature (°F)
15 - 25 m
6 - 8 m
Description and Growing Information
Flowering Period
Used in reforestation and conservation programmes and in recent years commercial plantations.
Sandy soils with excellent drainage. It prefers full sun once properly established. Moderately acidic soils are preferred (pH 5- 6.8) with an average temperature of 14°C.
Upright shape, typically having a rounded crown.
Younger trees are susceptible to shoot moths. Mature trees can be susceptible to colonization by southwestern dwarf mistletoe. Bark beetles may also be an issue.
High and dry mountain areas. Usually found in slightly acidic sandy loam, or rocky soils with excellent drainage.
Bark/Stem Description
When mature it develops deep splits and cracks (furrows) creating a narrow platy look. Very thick bark to almost 4 cm.
Flower/Leaf Bud Description
Oval or cone-shaped growing up to 2 cm long with fringed scales on sides.
Leaf Description
The needles are one of the longest of the pines, growing up to 25 - 45 cm long and 2 mm thick with coarsely saw-like margins. They are often drooping, originating at branch tips. Found in fascicles of 3 - 5 needles that are held in a persistent sheath 3 - 4 cm long.
Flower Description
Male flowers are a cylindrical shape measuring about 2 cm long. The female flowers are smaller than the male flowers.
Fruit Description
The sessile cones are oval in shape. They are about 13 - 18 cm long growing in pairs or whirls of 3 -5 cones. The cone scales are tipped with small prickles. Seeds are about 8 - 9 mm long with a wing about 20 mm long.
Colour Description
The leaves are a dull green colour. Male flowers are yellowish-purple in colour, while the females have a reddish tinge. Sessiles that are a dull brown colour. The pollen cones are yellow. Young bark is dark brown in colour and as it matures the bark lightens in into a yellow tinge around the ridges.
Texture Description
When young the bark is quite smooth, as it matures it develops deep furrows creating a narrow plate like patterns. The depth of these splits and cracks makes for a very coarse texture.
Propagated exclusively through seed. It does not produce cones until 30 years old where it then takes 2 years to mature and drop its seed. For best chance at germination, broken and washed mineral soil is recommended. Production for nursery seedling takes 10 - 12 months. Where in the last 3 months preconditioning shades are removed thus exposing seedlings to direct sunlight to prepare them for final field planting.
Ethnobotanical Uses (Disclaimer)